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Recommended reading

This section contains a list of publications that our Scientific Committee Members consider to be valuable for anyone wishing to learn more about specific aspects of thyroid dysfunction or disease.

The list is continually updated, so do check back frequently. If you have suggestions for important papers to be included, please email us: info@excemed.org

Articles by topic

Autoantibodies/autoimmunity
Diagnostic testing and screening: general
Elderly
Epidemiology
Graves’ disease
Hyperthyroidism
Hypothyroidism
Iodine and iodization
Metabolism
Ophthalmic disease
Paediatric disease
Pregnancy
Thyroid cancers
Ultrasound

 

Autoantibodies/autoimmunity

  1. Alzahrani AS, Aldasouqi S, Salam SA, Sultan A. Autoimmune thyroid disease with fluctuating thyroid function. PLoS Med 2005; 2: e89. Link to free article http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1140938/
  2. Diana T, Kanitz M, Lehmann M, Li Y, Olivo P, Kahaly GJ. Standardization of a bioassay for TSH receptor stimulating autoantibodies. Thyroid 2014; Oct 15. [Epub ahead of print] Link to PubMed http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=25317659
  3. Dittmar M, Kahaly GJ. Genetics of the autoimmune polyglandular syndrome type 3 variant. Thyroid 2010; 20: 737-43. Link to PubMed http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=20578896
  4. Ponto KA, Schuppan D, Zwiener I, Binder H, Mirshahi A, Diana T, Pitz S, Pfeiffer N, Kahaly GJ. Thyroid-associated orbitopathy is linked to gastrointestinal autoimmunity. Clin Exp Immunol 2014; 178: 57-64. Link to PubMed http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=24903731
  5. Flesch BK, Matheis N, Alt T, Weinstock C, Bux J, Kahaly GJ. HLA class II haplotypes differentiate between the adult autoimmune polyglandular syndrome types II and III. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2014; 99: E177-82. PubMed PMID: 24187405. Link to PubMed http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=24187405
  6. Diana T, Brown RS, Bossowski A, Segni M, Niedziela M, König J, Bossowska A, Ziora K, Hale A, Smith J, Pitz S, Kanitz M, Kahaly GJ. Clinical relevance of thyroid-stimulating autoantibodies in pediatric graves' disease-a multicenter study. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2014; 99: 1648-55. Link to PubMed http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=24517152
  7. Dittmar M, Woletz K, Kahaly GJ. Reduced DNASE1 gene expression in thyroid autoimmunity. Horm Metab Res 2013; 45: 257-60. Link to PubMed http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=23225239
  8. Li Y, Kim J, Diana T, Klasen R, Olivo PD, Kahaly GJ. A novel bioassay for anti-thyrotrophin receptor autoantibodies detects both thyroid-blocking and stimulating activity. Clin Exp Immunol 2013; 173: 390-7. Link to PubMed http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3949626/
  9. Weinstock C, Matheis N, Barkia S, Haager MC, Janson A, Marković A, Bux J, Kahaly GJ. Autoimmune polyglandular syndrome type 2 shows the same HLA class II pattern as type 1 diabetes. Tissue Antigens. 2011; 77: 317-24. Link to PubMed http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=21388354

 

Diagnostic testing and screening: general


See also Ultrasound or Thyroid Cancers sections

  1. Alzahrani AS, Ceresini G, Aldasouqi SA. Role of ultrasonography in the differential diagnosis of thyrotoxicosis: a noninvasive, cost-effective, and widely available but underutilized diagnostic tool. Endocr Pract 2012 ;18:567-78. Link to PubMed http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=22440986
  2. Garber JR, Cobin RH, Gharib H, Hennessey JV, Klein I, Mechanick JI, Pessah-Pollack R, Singer PA, Woeber KA; American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists and American Thyroid Association Taskforce on Hypothyroidism in Adults. Clinical practice guidelines for hypothyroidism in adults: cosponsored by the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists and the American Thyroid Association. Endocr Pract 2012; 18: 988-1028. Erratum in Endocr Pract 2013; 19: 175. Link to free article http://aace.metapress.com/content/611883025v73539
  3. Ladenson PW, Singer PA, Ain KB, Bagchi N, Bigos ST, Levy EG, Smith SA, Daniels GH, Cohen HD. American Thyroid Association guidelines for detection of thyroid dysfunction. Arch Intern Med 2000; 160: 1573-1575. Link to PubMed http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=10847249
  4. Meyerovitch J, Rotman-Pikielny P, Sherf M, Battat E, Levy Y, Surks MI. Serum thyrotropin measurements in the community: five-year follow-up in a large network of primary care physicians. Arch Intern Med 2007;167(14):1533-8. Link to PubMed http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17646608
  5. Spencer CA,  Schwarzbein D, Guttler RB, LoPresti JS, Nicoloff JT. Thyrotropin (TSH)-releasing hormone stimulation test responses employing third and fourth generation TSH assays.1993. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 76: 494. Link to PubMed http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=8432796
  6. Negro R, Schwartz A, Gismondi R, Tinelli A, Mangieri T, Stagnaro-Green A.  , et al.  Universal screening versus case finding for detection and treatment of thyroid hormonal dysfunction during pregnancy.  J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2010; 95: 1699–1707. Link to PubMed http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20130074
  7. Stagnaro-Green A, Abalovich M, Alexander E, Azizi F, Mestman J, Negro R, Nixon A, Pearce EN, Soldin OP, Sullivan S, Wiersinga W; American Thyroid Association Taskforce on Thyroid Disease During Pregnancy and Postpartum. Guidelines of the American Thyroid Association for the diagnosis and management of thyroid disease during pregnancy and postpartum. Thyroid 2011; 21: 1081-125. Link to free article  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3472679/
  8. Wang W, Guan H, Gerdes AM, Iervasi G, Yang Y, Tang Y-D. Thyroid status, cardiac function and mortality in patients with idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2015 Jun 8:jc20144159. [Epub ahead of print]. Link to PubMed http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=Thyroid+Status%2C+Cardiac+Funct...

 

Elderly

  1. Somwaru LL, Rariy CM, Arnold AM, Cappola AR. The natural history of subclinical hypothyroidism in the elderly: the Cardiovascular Health Study. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2012;97(6):1962-9. Link to free article http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3387427/
  2. Blum MR, Bauer DC, Collet TH, Fink HA, Cappola AR, da Costa BR, Wirth CD, Peeters RP, Åsvold BO, den Elzen WP, Luben RN, Imaizumi M, Bremner AP, Gogakos A, Eastell R, Kearney PM, Strotmeyer ES, Wallace ER, Hoff M, Ceresini G, Rivadeneira F, Uitterlinden AG, Stott DJ, Westendorp RG, Khaw KT, Langhammer A, Ferrucci L, Gussekloo J, Williams GR, Walsh JP, Jüni P, Aujesky D, Rodondi N; Thyroid Studies Collaboration. Subclinical thyroid dysfunction and fracture risk: a meta-analysis. JAMA 2015;313(20):2055-65. Link to PubMed http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26010634
  3. Åsvold BO, Vatten LJ, Bjøro T, Bauer DC, Bremner A, Cappola AR, Ceresini G, den Elzen WP, Ferrucci L, Franco OH, Franklyn JA, Gussekloo J, Iervasi G, Imaizumi M, Kearney PM, Khaw KT, Maciel RM, Newman AB, Peeters RP, Psaty BM, Razvi S, Sgarbi JA, Stott DJ, Trompet S, Vanderpump MP, Völzke H, Walsh JP, Westendorp RG, Rodondi N; Thyroid Studies Collaboration. Thyroid function within the normal range and risk of coronary heart disease: an individual participant data analysis of 14 cohorts. JAMA Intern Med 2015;175(6):1037-47. Link to PubMed http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25893284?dopt=Abstract
  4. Virgini VS, Wijsman LW, Rodondi N, Bauer DC, Kearney PM, Gussekloo J, den Elzen WP, Jukema JW, Westendorp RG, Ford I, Stott DJ, Mooijaart SP; PROSPER Study Group. Subclinical thyroid dysfunction and functional capacity among elderly. Thyroid 2014;24(2):208-14. Link to free article http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3926182/
  5. Chaker L, Baumgartner C, den Elzen WP, Ikram MA, Blum MR, Collet TH, Bakker SJ, Dehghan A, Drechsler C, Luben RN, Hofman A, Portegies ML, Medici M, Iervasi G, Stott DJ, Ford I, Bremner A, Wanner C, Ferrucci L, Newman AB, Dullaart RP, Sgarbi JA, Ceresini G, Maciel RM, Westendorp RG, Jukema JW, Imaizumi M, Franklyn JA, Bauer DC, Walsh JP, Razvi S, Khaw KT, Cappola AR, Völzke H, Franco OH, Gussekloo J, Rodondi N, Peeters RP; Thyroid Studies Collaboration. Subclinical hypothyroidism and the risk of stroke events and fatal stroke: an individual participant data analysis. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2015;100(6):2181-91. Link to PubMed http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25856213?dopt=Abstract
  6. Bremner AP, Feddema P, Leedman PJ, Brown SJ, Beilby JP, Lim EM, Wilson SG, O'Leary PC, Walsh JP. Age-related changes in thyroid function: a longitudinal study of a community-based cohort. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2012;97(5):1554-62. Link to PubMed http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22344200
  7. Waring AC, Arnold AM, Newman AB, Bùzková P, Hirsch C, Cappola AR. Longitudinal changes in thyroid function in the oldest old and survival: the Cardiovascular Health Study All-Stars Study. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2012;97(11):3944-50. Link to free article http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3485600/
  8. Collet TH, Bauer DC, Cappola AR, Asvold BO, Weiler S, Vittinghoff E, Gussekloo J, Bremner A, den Elzen WP, Maciel RM, Vanderpump MP, Cornuz J, Dörr M, Wallaschofski H, Newman AB, Sgarbi JA, Razvi S, Völzke H, Walsh JP, Aujesky D, Rodondi N; Thyroid Studies Collaboration. Thyroid antibody status, subclinical hypothyroidism, and the risk of coronary heart disease: an individual participant data analysis. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2014;99(9):3353-62. Link to free article http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4154087/
  9. Vadiveloo T, Donnan PT, Murphy MJ, Leese GP. Age- and gender-specific TSH reference intervals in people with no obvious thyroid disease in Tayside, Scotland: the Thyroid Epidemiology, Audit, and Research Study (TEARS). J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2013;98(3):1147-53. Link to PubMed http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed?term=23345094
  10. Yeap BB, Alfonso H, Hankey GJ, Flicker L, Golledge J, Norman PE, Chubb SA. Higher free thyroxine levels are associated with all-cause mortality in euthyroid older men: the Health In Men Study. Eur J Endocrinol 2013;169(4):401-8. Link to PubMed http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23853210
  11. Angell TE, Lechner MG, Nguyen CT, Salvato VL, Nicoloff JT, LoPresti JS. Clinical features and hospital outcomes in thyroid storm: a retrospective cohort study. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2015;100(2):451-9. Link to PubMed http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25343237
  12. Iglesias P, Ridruejo E, Muñoz A, Prado F, Macías MC, Guerrero MT, Tajada P, García-Arévalo C, Díez JJ. Thyroid function tests and mortality in aged hospitalized patients: a 7-year prospective observational study. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2013;98(12):4683-90. Link to PubMed http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24171920
  13. Mingote E, Meroño T, Rujelman R, Marquez A, Fossati P, Gurfinkiel M, Schnitman M, Brites F, Faingold C, Brenta G. High TSH and low T4 as prognostic markers in older patients. Hormones (Athens) 2012;11(3):350-5. Link to free article http://www.hormones.gr/814/article/article.html


Epidemiology

  1. Carlos-Raboca J, Jimeno J, Kho S, Andag-Silva A, Jasul G, Nicodemus N, Cunanan E,  Du  C. The Philippine Thyroid Diseases Study (PhilTiDeS 1): Prevalence of Thyroid Disorders Among Adults in the Philippines. Journal of the ASEAN Federation of Endocrine Societies 27; 2012: 27 – 33 Link to free article http://www.openaccessarticles.com/read/22148-2_The_Philippine_Thyroid_Di...(PhilTiDeS_1):_Prevalence_of_Thyroid_Disorders_Among_Adults_in_the_Philippines


Graves’ disease

  1. Bahn RS. Graves’ Ophthalmopathy. N Engl J Med 2010; 362: 726-38. Link to free article http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3902010/?report=classic
  2. Kamijo K, Murayama H, Uzu T, Togashi K, Olivo PD, Kahaly GJ. Similar clinical performance of a novel chimeric thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor bioassay and an automated thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor binding assay in Graves' disease. Thyroid 2011; 21: 1295-9. doi: 10.1089/thy.2011.0056. Link to abstract http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=22066477
  3. McIver B, Morris JC. The pathogenesis of Graves' disease. Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am 1998;27:73-89. Link to abstract http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=McIver+B
  4. Nakamura H, Noh JY, Itoh K, Fukata S, Miyauchi A, Hamada N. Comparison of methimazole and propylthiouracil in patients with hyperthyroidism caused by Graves' disease. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2007; 92: 2157-62. Link to PubMed http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=17389704
  5. Ponto KA, Kanitz M, Olivo PD, Pitz S, Pfeiffer N, Kahaly GJ. Clinical relevance of thyroid-stimulating immunoglobulins in graves' ophthalmopathy. Ophthalmology 2011; 118(11): 2279-85. Link to PubMed http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=21684605

 

Hyperthyroidism

  1. Bahn Chair RS, Burch HB, Cooper DS, Garber JR, Greenlee MC, Klein I, Laurberg P, McDougall IR, Montori VM, Rivkees SA, Ross DS, Sosa JA, Stan MN; American Thyroid Association; American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists. Hyperthyroidism and other causes of thyrotoxicosis: management guidelines of the American Thyroid Association and American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists. Thyroid 2011; 21:593-646. Link to abstract http://online.liebertpub.com/doi/abs/10.1089/thy.2010.0417
  2. Biondi B, Kahaly GJ. Cardiovascular involvement in patients with different causes of hyperthyroidism. Nat Rev Endocrinol 2010; 6: 431-43. Link to PubMed http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=20585347
  3. Cooper DS. Antithyroid drugs. N Engl J Med 2005; 352: 905-17. Link to PubMed http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=15745981
  4. Cooper DS, Laurberg P. Hyperthyroidism in pregnancy Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol 2013; 1: 238-49. Link to PubMed http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=24622372
  5. Franklyn J. Consensus statement for good practice and audit measures in the management of hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism. BMJ 1996; 313, 519. Link to free article http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2351923/
  6. Kahaly GJ, Bartalena L, Hegedüs L. The American Thyroid Association/American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists guidelines for hyperthyroidism and other causes of thyrotoxicosis: a European perspective. Thyroid 2011; 21: 585-91. Link to PubMed http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=21663420
  7. Marcocci C, Kahaly GJ, Krassas GE, Bartalena L, Prummel M, Stahl M, Altea MA, Nardi M, Pitz S, Boboridis K, Sivelli P, von Arx G, Mourits MP, Baldeschi L, Bencivelli W, Wiersinga W; European Group on Graves' Orbitopathy. Selenium and the course of mild Graves' orbitopathy. N Engl J Med 2011; 364: 1920-31. Link to free article http://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMoa1012985
  8. Nakamura H, Noh JY, Itoh K, Fukata S, Miyauchi A, Hamada N. Comparison of methimazole and propylthiouracil in patients with hyperthyroidism caused by Graves' disease. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2007; 92: 2157-62. Link to PubMed http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=17389704
  9. Ponto KA, Kanitz M, Olivo PD, Pitz S, Pfeiffer N, Kahaly GJ. Clinical relevance of thyroid-stimulating immunoglobulins in graves' ophthalmopathy. Ophthalmology 2011; 118(11): 2279-85. Link to PubMed http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=21684605
  10. Zimmerman D. Fetal and neonatal hyperthyroidism. Thyroid 1999; 9: 727-33. Link to PubMed http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=10447021


Hypothyroidism

  1. Brenta G, Fretes O. Dyslipidemias and hypothyroidism. Pediatr Endocrinol Rev 2014;11(4):390-9. Link to PubMed http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24988692
  2. Aldasouqi S, Nkansa-Dwamena D, Bokhari S, Alzahrani AS, Khan M, Al-Reffi A, Merdad A. Is subclinical hypothyroidism associated with hyperhomocysteinemia? Endocr Pract. 2004; 10: 399-403. Link to PubMed http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=15760786
  3. Brenta G, Vaisman M, Sgarbi JA, Bergoglio LM, Andrada NC, Bravo PP, Orlandi AM, Graf H; Task Force on Hypothyroidism of the Latin American Thyroid Society (LATS). Clinical practice guidelines for the management of hypothyroidism. Arq Bras Endocrinol Metab. 2013; 57: 265-91. Link to PubMed http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=23828433
  4. Franklyn J. Consensus statement for good practice and audit measures in the management of hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism. BMJ 1996; 313, 519. Link to free article http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2351923/
  5. Garber JR, Cobin RH, Gharib H, Hennessey JV, Klein I, Mechanick JI, Pessah-Pollack R, Singer PA, Woeber KA; American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists and American Thyroid Association Taskforce on Hypothyroidism in Adults. Clinical practice guidelines for hypothyroidism in adults: cosponsored by the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists and the American Thyroid Association. Endocr Pract 2012;18(6):988-1028. Link to PubMed http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23246686
  6. Gronich N, Deftereos SN, Lavi I, Persidis AS, Abernethy DR, Rennert G. Hypothyroidism is a risk factor for new-onset diabetes mellitus: a cohort study. Diabetes Care 2015 Jun 12. pii: dc142515. [Epub ahead of print]. Link to PubMed http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26070591
  7. Jonklaas J, Bianco AC, Bauer AJ, Burman KD, Cappola AR, Celi FS, Cooper DS, Kim BW, Peeters RP, Rosenthal MS, Sawka AM. Guidelines for the Treatment of Hypothyroidism Prepared by the American Thyroid Association Task Force on Thyroid Hormone Replacement. Thyroid 2014;24(12):1670-751. doi: 10.1089/thy.2014.0028. Link to PubMed http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25266247
  8. van Tienhoven-Wind LJ, Dullaart RP. Low–normal thyroid function and the pathogenesis of common cardio-metabolic disorders. Eur J Clin Invest 2015;45(5):494-503. doi: 10.1111/eci.12423. Epub 2015 Mar 9. Link to PubMed http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=Low%E2%80%93normal+thyroid+func...
  9. Wiersinga WM, Duntas L, Fadeyev V, Nygaard B, Vanderpump MP.  2012 ETA Guidelines: The Use of L-T4 + L-T3 in the Treatment of Hypothyroidism. Eur Thyroid J 2012; 1: 55-71.  Link to free article http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3821467/


AnchorIodine and iodization

  1. Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to iodine and contribution to normal cognitive development pursuant to Article 14 of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006. EFSA Journal 2014;12(1):3517. doi:10.2903/j.efsa.2014.3517. Link to full article http://www.efsa.europa.eu/en/efsajournal/pub/3517.htm
  2. Vander pump M. The epidemiology of thyroid disease Br Med Bull 2011; 99: 39-51. Link to PubMed http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=21893493
  3. WHO/UNICEF/ICCIDD. http://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/10665/85972/1/WHO_NMH_NHD_EPG_13.1_en...


Metabolism

  1. Blanc E, Ponce C, Brodschi D, Nepote A, Barreto A, Schnitman M, Fossati P, Salgado P, Cejas C, Faingold C, Musso C, Brenta G. Association between worse metabolic control and increased thyroid volume and nodular disease in elderly adults with metabolic syndrome. Metab Syndr Relat Disord 2015;13(5):221-6. doi: 10.1089/met.2014.0158. Epub 2015 Mar 19. Link to PubMed http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=Association+Between+Worse+Metab...
  2. Duntas LH, Brenta G 2012 The effect of thyroid disorders on lipid levels and metabolism. Med Clin North Am 96:269-81. Link to PubMed http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=22443975
  3. Brenta G 2011 Why can insulin resistance be a natural consequence of thyroid dysfunction? J Thyroid Res 2011:152850. Link to free article http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC31756


Ophthalmic disease

  1. Bahn RS. Graves’ Ophthalmopathy. N Engl J Med 2010; 362: 726-38. Link to free article http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3902010/?report=classic
  2. Marcocci C, Kahaly GJ, Krassas GE, Bartalena L, Prummel M, Stahl M, Altea MA, Nardi M, Pitz S, Boboridis K, Sivelli P, von Arx G, Mourits MP, Baldeschi L, Bencivelli W, Wiersinga W; European Group on Graves' Orbitopathy. Selenium and the course of mild Graves' orbitopathy. N Engl J Med 2011; 364: 1920-31. Link to free article http://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMoa1012985
  3. Matheis N, Okrojek R, Grus FH, Kahaly GJ. Proteomics of tear fluid in thyroid-associated orbitopathy. Thyroid 2012; 22: 1039-45. Link to PubMed http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=22873942
  4. Ponto KA, Kanitz M, Olivo PD, Pitz S, Pfeiffer N, Kahaly GJ. Clinical relevance of thyroid-stimulating immunoglobulins in graves' ophthalmopathy. Ophthalmology 2011; 118(11): 2279-85. Link to PubMed http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=2168460521684605
  5. Ponto KA, Merkesdal S, Hommel G, Pitz S, Pfeiffer N, Kahaly GJ. Public health relevance of Graves' orbitopathy. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2013; 98: 145-52. Link to PubMed http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=23185037
  6. Ponto KA, Schuppan D, Zwiener I, Binder H, Mirshahi A, Diana T, Pitz S, Pfeiffer N, Kahaly GJ. Thyroid-associated orbitopathy is linked to gastrointestinal autoimmunity. Clin Exp Immunol 2014; 178: 57-64. Link to PubMed http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=24903731


Paediatric disease

  1. Diana T, Brown RS, Bossowski A, Segni M, Niedziela M, König J, Bossowska A, Ziora K, Hale A, Smith J, Pitz S, Kanitz M, Kahaly GJ. Clinical relevance of thyroid-stimulating autoantibodies in pediatric graves' disease-a multicenter study. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2014 May;99(5):1648-55. doi: 10.1210/jc.2013-4026. Epub 2014 Feb 11. PubMed PMID: 24517152.
  2. Francis GL, Waguespack SG, Bauer AJ, Angelos P, Benvenga S, Cerutti JM, Dinauer CA, Hamilton J, Hay ID, Luster M, Parisi MT, Rachmiel M, Geoffrey B, Thompson GB, Yamashita S. Management Guidelines for Children with Thyroid Nodules and Differentiated Thyroid Cancer. The American Thyroid Association Guidelines Task Force on Pediatric Thyroid Cancer. Thyroid 2015;25(7):716-59. doi: 10.1089/thy.2014.0460. Link to PubMed http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25900731
  3. Lazarus J, Brown RS, Daumerie C, Hubalewska-Dydejczyk A, Negro R, Vaidya B. 2014 European Thyroid Association Guidelines for the Management of Subclinical Hypothyroidism in Pregnancy and in Children. Eur Thyroid J 2014;3:76–94. Link to PubMed http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=25114871
  4. Zimmerman D. Fetal and neonatal hyperthyroidism. Thyroid 1999; 9: 727-33. Link to PubMed http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=10447021


Pregnancy

  1. Andersen SL, Olsen J, Wu CS, Laurberg P. Spontaneous abortion, stillbirth and hyperthyroidism: a Danish population-based study. Eur Thyroid J 2014;3(3):164-72. doi: 10.1159/000365101. Epub 2014 Aug 29. Link to free article http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=Spontaneous+Abortion%2C+Stillbi...
  2. Andersen SL, Olsen J, Wu CS, Laurberg P. Birth defects after early pregnancy use of antithyroid drugs: a Danish nationwide study. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2013 Nov;98(11):4373-81. doi: 10.1210/jc.2013-2831. Epub 2013 Oct 22. Link to PubMed http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=Birth+Defects+After+Early+Pregn...
  3. Azizi F, Amouzegar A. Management of hyperthyroidism during pregnancy and lactation. Eur J Endocrinol 2011;164(6):871-6. doi: 10.1530/EJE-10-1030. Epub 2011 Mar 9. Link to free article http://eje-online.org/content/164/6/871.long
  4. Pearce EN. Thyroid disorders during pregnancy and postpartum. Best Pract Res Clin Obstet Gynaecol 2015;29(5):700-6. doi: 10.1016/j.bpobgyn.2015.04.007. Epub 2015 Apr 22. Link to PubMed http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26028555
  5. Samadi A, Skocic J, Rovet JF. Children born to women treated for hypothyroidism during pregnancy show abnormal corpus callosum development. Thyroid 2015;25(5):494-502. doi: 10.1089/thy.2014.0548. Epub 2015 Apr 7. Link to PubMed http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=Children+Born+to+Women+Treated+...
  6. Okosieme OE, Lazarus JH. Important considerations in the management of Graves’ disease in pregnant women. Expert Rev Clin Immunol. 2015 Aug;11(8):947-57. doi: 10.1586/1744666X.2015.1054375. Epub 2015 Jun 3. Link to PubMed http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=Important+considerations+in+the...
  7. Cooper DS, Laurberg P. Hyperthyroidism in pregnancy Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol 2013;1:238-49. Link to PubMed http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=24622372
  8. Negro R, Schwartz A, Gismondi R, Tinelli A, Mangieri T, Stagnaro-Green A.  , et al.  Universal screening versus case finding for detection and treatment of thyroid hormonal dysfunction during pregnancy.  J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2010; 95: 1699–1707. Link to PubMed http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20130074
  9. Stagnaro-Green A, Abalovich M, Alexander E, Azizi F, Mestman J, Negro R, Nixon A, Pearce EN, Soldin OP, Sullivan S, Wiersinga W; American Thyroid Association Taskforce on Thyroid Disease During Pregnancy and Postpartum. Guidelines of the American Thyroid Association for the diagnosis and management of thyroid disease during pregnancy and postpartum. Thyroid 2011;21:1081-125. Link to free article  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3472679/
  10. De Groot L, Abalovich M, Alexander EK, Amino N, Barbour L, Cobin RH, Eastman CJ, Lazarus JH, Luton D, Mandel SJ, Mestman J, Rovet J, Sullivan S.  Management of Thyroid Dysfunction during Pregnancy and Postpartum: An Endocrine Society Clinical Practice Guideline.  J Clin Endocrinol Metab 97: 2543–2565, 2012. Link to PubMed http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=22869843
  11. Lazarus J, Brown RS, Daumerie C, Hubalewska-Dydejczyk A, Negro R, Vaidya B. 2014 European Thyroid Association Guidelines for the Management of Subclinical Hypothyroidism in Pregnancy and in Children. Eur Thyroid J 2014;3:76–94. Link to PubMed http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=25114871
  12. Zimmerman D. Fetal and neonatal hyperthyroidism. Thyroid 1999; 9: 727-33. Link to PubMed http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=10447021


Thyroid cancers

  1. Alzahrani AS, Mohamed G, Al Shammary A, Aldasouqi S, Abdal Salam S, Shoukri M. Long-term course and predictive factors of elevated serum thyroglobulin and negative diagnostic radioiodine whole body scan in differentiated thyroid cancer. J Endocrinol Invest 2005; 28: 540-6. Link to PubMed http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=16117196
  2. Alzahrani AS, Alsuhaibani H, Salam SA, Al Sifri SN, Mohamed G, Al Sobhi S, Sulaiman O, Akhtar M. Diagnostic accuracy of high-resolution neck ultrasonography in the follow-up of differentiated thyroid cancer: a prospective study. Endocr Pract 2005; 11: 165-71. 16239202. Link to PubMed http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=16239202
  3. Alzahrani AS, Baitei EY, Zou M, Shi Y. Clinical case seminar: metastatic follicular thyroid carcinoma arising from congenital goiter as a result of a novel splice donor site mutation in the thyroglobulin gene. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2006; 91: 740-6. Link to PubMed http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=16403815
  4. Alzahrani AS, Mohamed GE, Al Rifai A, Al-Sugair A, Abdel Salam SA, Sulaiman OM, Demirkaya O. Role of [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography in follow-up of differentiated thyroid cancer. Endocr Pract 2006; 12: 152-8. 16690462. Link to PubMed http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=16690462
  5. Alzahrani AS, Abouzied ME, Salam SA, Mohamed G, Rifai A, Al Sugair A, Amin T. The role of F-18-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography in the postoperative evaluation of differentiated thyroid cancer. Eur J Endocrinol 2008; 158: 683-9.  Erratum in: Eur J Endocrinol 2008; 158: 941. Al-Zahrani, Ali S [corrected to Alzahrani, Ali S]. Link to free article http://eje-online.org/site/misc/edboard.xhtml
  6. Alzahrani AS, AlShaikh O, Tuli M, Al-Sugair A, Alamawi R, Al-Rasheed MM. Diagnostic value of recombinant human thyrotropin-stimulated ¹²³I whole-body scintigraphy in the follow-up of patients with differentiated thyroid cancer. Clin Nucl Med 2012; 37: 229-34.  Link to PubMed http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=22310247
  7. Alzahrani AS, AlQaraawi A, Al Sohaibani F, Almanea H, Abalkhail H. Pancreatic metastasis arising from a BRAF(V600E)-positive papillary thyroid cancer: the role of endoscopic ultrasound-guided biopsy and response to sorafenib therapy. Thyroid 2012; 22: 536-41. Link to PubMed http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=22435913
  8. Alzahrani AS, Xing M. Impact of lymph node metastases identified on central neck dissection (CND) on the recurrence of papillary thyroid cancer: potential role of BRAFV600E mutation in defining CND. Endocr Relat Cancer 2013; 20:13-22. Link to PubMed http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=23132792
  9. Baitei EY, Zou M, Al-Mohanna F, Collison K, Alzahrani AS, Farid NR, Meyer B, Shi Y. Aberrant BRAF splicing as an alternative mechanism for oncogenic B-Raf activation in thyroid carcinoma. J Pathol 2009; 217: 707-15. Link to PubMed http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=19156774
  10. Urken ML, Milas M, Randolph GW, Tufano R, Bergman D, Bernet V, Brett EM, Brierley JD, Cobin R, Doherty G, Klopper J, Lee S, Machac J, Mechanick JI, Orloff LA, Ross D, Smallridge RC, Terris DJ, Clain JB, Tuttle M. Management of recurrent and persistent metastatic lymph nodes in well-differentiated thyroid cancer: A multifactorial decision-making guide for the thyroid cancer care collaborative. Head Neck. 2014 Jan 17. doi: 10.1002/hed.23615. [Epub ahead of print] Link to PubMed http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24436291
  11. Tuttle RM, Tala H, Shah J, Leboeuf R, Ghossein R, Gonen M, Brokhin M, Omry G, Fagin JA, Shaha A. Estimating risk of recurrence in differentiated thyroid cancer after total thyroidectomy and radioactive iodine  remnant ablation: using response to therapy variables to modify the initial risk estimates predicted by the new American Thyroid. Thyroid 2010; 20: 1341-9. Link to PubMed http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=21034228
  12. Murugan AK, Alzahrani A, Xing M. Mutations in critical domains confer the human mTOR gene strong tumorigenicity. J Biol Chem 2013; 288: 6511-21. Link to PubMed http://www.jbc.org/content/288/9/6511.long
  13. Nicodemus N. Recent Advances In The Management of Thyroid Cancer. World Journal of Nuclear Medicine 2013; 12: 191-192. Link to abstract http://www.wjnm.org/downloadpdf.asp?issn=1450-1147;year=2013;volume=12;i...
  14. Shi Y, Zou M, Baitei EY, Alzahrani AS, Parhar RS, Al-Makhalafi Z, Al-Mohanna FA. Cannabinoid 2 receptor induction by IL-12 and its potential as a therapeutic target for the treatment of anaplastic thyroid carcinoma. Cancer Gene Ther. 2008; 15: 101-7. Link to PubMed http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=18197164
  15. Vera MI, Meroño T, Urrutia MA, Parisi C, Morosan Y, Rosmarin M, Schnitman M, Brites F, Grisendi S, Serrano MS, Luciani W, Serrano L, Zuk C, De Barrio G, Cejas C, Faingold MC, Brenta G. Differential profile of ultrasound findings associated with malignancy in mixed and solid thyroid nodules in an elderly female population J Thyroid Res 2014; 2014: 761653 Link to free article http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4094854/
  16. Xing M, Alzahrani AS, Carson KA, Viola D, Elisei R, Bendlova B, Yip L, Mian C, Vianello F, Tuttle RM, Robenshtok E, Fagin JA, Puxeddu E, Fugazzola L, Czarniecka A, Jarzab B, O'Neill CJ, Sywak MS, Lam AK, Riesco-Eizaguirre G, Santisteban P, Nakayama H, Tufano RP, Pai SI, Zeiger MA, Westra WH, Clark DP, Clifton-Bligh R, Sidransky D, Ladenson PW, Sykorova V. Association between BRAF V600E mutation and mortality in patients with papillary thyroid cancer. JAMA 2013; 309: 1493-501. Link to free article http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3791140/
  17. Xing M, Alzahrani AS, Carson KA, Shong YK, Kim TY, Viola D, Elisei R, Bendlová B, Yip L, Mian C, Vianello F, Tuttle RM, Robenshtok E, Fagin JA, Puxeddu E,Fugazzola L, Czarniecka A, Jarzab B, O'Neill CJ, Sywak MS, Lam AK,Riesco-Eizaguirre G, Santisteban P, Nakayama H, Clifton-Bligh R, Tallini G, Holt EH, Sýkorová V. Association Between BRAF V600E Mutation and Recurrence of Papillary Thyroid Cancer. J Clin Oncol 2014; Oct 20. pii: JCO.2014.56.8253. [Epubahead of print] Link to PubMed http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=25332244
  18. Zou M, Baitei EY, Alzahrani AS, Al-Mohanna F, Farid NR, Meyer B, Shi Y. Oncogenic activation of MAP kinase by BRAF pseudogene in thyroid tumors. Neoplasia 2009; 11: 57-65. 19107232. Link to free article http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2606119/
  19. Zou M, Baitei EY, Alzahrani AS, BinHumaid FS, Alkhafaji D, Al-Rijjal RA, Meyer BF, Shi Y. Concomitant RAS, RET/PTC, or BRAF mutations in advanced stage of papillary thyroid carcinoma. Thyroid 2014; 24: 1256-66. Link to free article http://online.liebertpub.com/doi/abs/10.1089/thy.2013.0610


Ultrasound

See also Diagnostic testing and screening

  1. Kim DW, Park JS, In HS, Choo HJ, Ryu JH, Jung SJ. Ultrasound-based diagnostic classification for solid and partially cystic thyroid nodules. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2012; 33:1144-9. http://www.ajnr.org/content/33/6/1144.long
  2. Vera MI, Meroño T, Urrutia MA, Parisi C, Morosan Y, Rosmarin M, Schnitman M, Brites F, Grisendi S, Serrano MS, Luciani W, Serrano L, Zuk C, De Barrio G, Cejas C, Faingold MC, Brenta G Differential profile of ultrasound findings associated with malignancy in mixed and solid thyroid nodules in an elderly female population J Thyroid Res 2014;2014:761653 Link to free article http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4094854/